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Kentucky Hemp Grower Group Reaps $2,000,000 Harvest in 2016

Source: Atalo Holdings Communications

Winchester, Ky. – Atalo Holdings, Inc., a diversified industrial hemp research and production company in Winchester, Ky., announced a $2,000,000 payout to their Growers' Group for the 2016 harvest. “We are pleased to announce payments of $2,000,000 to our growers for hemp grain and CBD production in 2016,” said Atalo Chairman Andrew Graves. “This represents a solid step forward in hemp research and development and offers the potential for positive rural economic development in 2017.”

Ben Furnish is a grain and tobacco farmer who participated in the Atalo Growers' Group. “This was a good year for our hemp grain. Much better than last year with an all around good yield. Atalo's proprietary seed proved to be an improvement, the crop fit in well with our soy bean program and the return on investment was a little better than corn,” said Furnish. Hemp-based foods have emerged as “superfoods” in the health and wellness food category in North American and European markets with a projected compounded annual growth rate of 20% through 2020. This is good news for Kentucky farmers. “Hemp is a unique plant, with so many uses, from fiber to protein, oils and CBD. These multiple uses should make revenue from hemp comparable with tobacco,” Furnish said.

Dave Spalding is the Growers' representative for Atalo Holdings. According to Spalding, “In 2016, we had 58 growers and 2,466 acres approved for hemp production, making us one of the largest permitted hemp companies in the US. At our Hemp Research Campus, the mission is to provide leadership and value through research, development and commercialization of industrial hemp. For this harvest, 410 acres were for CBD, which we are processing, and 755 acres were for grain and seed replication. Hemp is demonstrating great potential as a sustainable source of quality agricultural protein and gross returns from CBD production appear to be at least comparable to if not better than gross returns from tobacco on a per acre basis.”

Robert Eads is a tobacco farmer who sees hemp as a potential alternative crop. “I had a very good year and an excellent return on investment in Atalo's CBD program,” said Eads. “They helped me with seed selection, planting methods, harvesting and drying. All in all I'd say next year's CBD crop will be accomplished with my existing tobacco equipment. With that kind of return on investment, I'm looking forward to next year and an opportunity for improved seed, planting, harvesting and drying techniques. We're all learning and the market looks promising.”

Atalo CEO, William Hilliard, says the market is expanding rapidly. “According to Hemp Business Journal, dispensary sales of CBD products will grow to $1.6 billion in sales by 2020 and SPINS, a leading provider of retail consumer insights, analytics reporting for the Natural, Organic, and Specialty Products Industry, tracked $1,344,646 in sales of products containing CBD as a primary ingredient in the Natural and Specialty Retail channel over the 52-week period ending Aug. 7, 2016.”

“The Hemp Business Journal also estimates that total sales of CBD products in the pet supplement channel will be just shy of $7 million in 2016 and account for about 6 percent of hemp-based CBD product sales.” These economic indicators coupled with the 2016 harvest results give us strong momentum going into the 2017 season, Hilliard said.”

Atalo Holdings, Inc. and subsidiary companies Super Food Processing, KentuckyCBD and Kentucky Hemp Seed R&D operate the Hemp Research Campus in Winchester, Kentucky.

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Kentucky Hemp Grower Group Reaps $2,000,000 Harvest in 2016

Source: Atalo Holdings Communications

Winchester, Ky. – Atalo Holdings, Inc., a diversified industrial hemp research and production company in Winchester, Ky., announced a $2,000,000 payout to their Growers' Group for the 2016 harvest. “We are pleased to announce payments of $2,000,000 to our growers for hemp grain and CBD production in 2016,” said Atalo Chairman Andrew Graves. “This represents a solid step forward in hemp research and development and offers the potential for positive rural economic development in 2017.”

Ben Furnish is a grain and tobacco farmer who participated in the Atalo Growers' Group. “This was a good year for our hemp grain. Much better than last year with an all around good yield. Atalo's proprietary seed proved to be an improvement, the crop fit in well with our soy bean program and the return on investment was a little better than corn,” said Furnish. Hemp-based foods have emerged as “superfoods” in the health and wellness food category in North American and European markets with a projected compounded annual growth rate of 20% through 2020. This is good news for Kentucky farmers. “Hemp is a unique plant, with so many uses, from fiber to protein, oils and CBD. These multiple uses should make revenue from hemp comparable with tobacco,” Furnish said.

Dave Spalding is the Growers' representative for Atalo Holdings. According to Spalding, “In 2016, we had 58 growers and 2,466 acres approved for hemp production, making us one of the largest permitted hemp companies in the US. At our Hemp Research Campus, the mission is to provide leadership and value through research, development and commercialization of industrial hemp. For this harvest, 410 acres were for CBD, which we are processing, and 755 acres were for grain and seed replication. Hemp is demonstrating great potential as a sustainable source of quality agricultural protein and gross returns from CBD production appear to be at least comparable to if not better than gross returns from tobacco on a per acre basis.”

Robert Eads is a tobacco farmer who sees hemp as a potential alternative crop. “I had a very good year and an excellent return on investment in Atalo's CBD program,” said Eads. “They helped me with seed selection, planting methods, harvesting and drying. All in all I'd say next year's CBD crop will be accomplished with my existing tobacco equipment. With that kind of return on investment, I'm looking forward to next year and an opportunity for improved seed, planting, harvesting and drying techniques. We're all learning and the market looks promising.”

Atalo CEO, William Hilliard, says the market is expanding rapidly. “According to Hemp Business Journal, dispensary sales of CBD products will grow to $1.6 billion in sales by 2020 and SPINS, a leading provider of retail consumer insights, analytics reporting for the Natural, Organic, and Specialty Products Industry, tracked $1,344,646 in sales of products containing CBD as a primary ingredient in the Natural and Specialty Retail channel over the 52-week period ending Aug. 7, 2016.”

“The Hemp Business Journal also estimates that total sales of CBD products in the pet supplement channel will be just shy of $7 million in 2016 and account for about 6 percent of hemp-based CBD product sales.” These economic indicators coupled with the 2016 harvest results give us strong momentum going into the 2017 season, Hilliard said.”

Atalo Holdings, Inc. and subsidiary companies Super Food Processing, KentuckyCBD and Kentucky Hemp Seed R&D operate the Hemp Research Campus in Winchester, Kentucky.

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Top Five Things Your CBD Business Needs to Consider

It is no secret that cannabidiol (CBD) is having a moment right now. Unlike its cousin tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is another cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant, CBD is not psychoactive. It has been growing in popularity for years for medical and other applications, but has really taken off lately.

Though CBD has become increasingly popular, it is still important to proceed with caution for any businesses operating in this space. Below are five important questions to keep in mind when dealing with CBD.

1. What is the source of the CBD?

It's not an accident that this question is first on this list. The source is key. If you are selling CBD at a licensed dispensary in a state that permits the sale of marijuana, then you need to verify that the product comes from a licensed source. Some states like Washington and Oregon may allow CBD additives from other sources, while other states are silent on the topic. You should act cautiously either way.

If you are selling across state lines or in stores that are not licensed to sell marijuana, then you must ensure that your product is either derived from industrial hemp or from portions of the cannabis plant exempt from the Controlled Substances Act's (CSA) definition of “marijuana.” If using industrial hemp, you need to make sure that the cultivator has a license from a state that has implemented an agricultural pilot program in compliance with Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill. If you are using exempt plant material, you need to verify that the product was derived from mature stalks or seeds incapable of germination as those sections are specifically exempted from the CSA.

If you a buying from a cultivator or processor, you should carefully draft your purchase and sales agreements to include representations and warranties from the supplier. It's also important to learn about who you are doing business as the question of source can determine whether or not something is legal.

2. What do the lab tests say?

If your first thought in reading this is, “should I be testing CBD products?” the answer is “yes!” It's important to test for items that could pose a risk to public health including pesticides, heavy metals, and microbials. States may require such testing, but the risk will ultimately fall on any company in the line of production. If a consumer is harmed, the cultivator, processor, and distributor may all be sued for product liability.

CBD is not independently listed as a controlled substance in the CSA. However, THC is. This means you need to test to make sure you CBD product does not contain THC, unless you are selling it in states that have legal marijuana programs. This is important whether your are dealing with Farm Bill hemp as it is defined as containing less than .3% THC on a dry weight basis, or if you are dealing with exempt plant material as THC alone is a Schedule I controlled substance.

3. Where is the CBD going to be sold?

I recently wrote about how state law impacts the distribution of hemp-derived CBD products. If you are distributing products in a state that restricts the sale of CBD, like Michigan, you products could be seized and your company and its stakeholders could face criminal sanctions. It's important to track where your products are being distributed and to inform your potential customers that they too must monitor state law.

4. What claims are you making about CBD?

We've written before that the FDA will treat products as drugs if their own labeling or marketing suggests they are “intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease.” Phrases like “combats tumor cells” and “[has] anti-proliferative properties that inhibit cell division and growth in certain types of cancer” clearly suggest that the CDB product can cure, mitigate, treat or prevent cancer, and is thus a drug.

Any suggestion that a product might have a role in treating or diagnosing disease, or that it is intended to affect the structure or any function of the human body of humans or other animals, is a health claim that subjects the product to drug regulations (unless it falls within the narrow confines of the Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act, which the FDA has ruled that CBD does not.)

It's important to remember that only the FDA can determine whether a drug can be labelled as safe and effective for a particular disease. Preventing health claims based on anecdotal evidence is one of the FDA's core functions and the agency will not hesitate to issue warning letters based on CBD health claims.

Long story short, don't make health claims about your CBD products or allow others to post testimonials on your website.

5. Has the law changed?

Finally, it's important to keep up with the ever changing legal landscape. Tom Angell of Marijuana Moment recently reported that Mitch McConnell announced that his proposed hemp bill will be included in the broad ranging agricultural act of 2018. This comes shortly after Congress approved a non-binding resolution acknowledging the vast potential of hemp.

In addition to federal law, stakeholders need to stay informed as to how the DEA feels about CBD that week. The DEA is often changing its policy on this subject, whether that comes through a post on its website or an internal directive. It's important to stay up-to-date on the DEA's latest position on CBD.

Finally, monitor state law. This is probably the hardest to accomplish since there are 50 states who each may treat CBD differently. Still, if you are doing business in a state, it's on you to know the rules.

CBD law is incredibly complex and this list only scratches the surface as to what you need to look out for. If you have additional questions, give our firm a call to see how we can help your CBD business thrive.

Top Five Things Your CBD Business Needs to Consider

It is no secret that cannabidiol (CBD) is having a moment right now. Unlike its cousin tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is another cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant, CBD is not psychoactive. It has been growing in popularity for years for medical and other applications, but has really taken off lately.

Though CBD has become increasingly popular, it is still important to proceed with caution for any businesses operating in this space. Below are five important questions to keep in mind when dealing with CBD.

1. What is the source of the CBD?

It’s not an accident that this question is first on this list. The source is key. If you are selling CBD at a licensed dispensary in a state that permits the sale of marijuana, then you need to verify that the product comes from a licensed source. Some states like Washington and Oregon may allow CBD additives from other sources, while other states are silent on the topic. You should act cautiously either way.

If you are selling across state lines or in stores that are not licensed to sell marijuana, then you must ensure that your product is either derived from industrial hemp or from portions of the cannabis plant exempt from the Controlled Substances Act’s (CSA) definition of “marijuana.” If using industrial hemp, you need to make sure that the cultivator has a license from a state that has implemented an agricultural pilot program in compliance with Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill. If you are using exempt plant material, you need to verify that the product was derived from mature stalks or seeds incapable of germination as those sections are specifically exempted from the CSA.

If you a buying from a cultivator or processor, you should carefully draft your purchase and sales agreements to include representations and warranties from the supplier. It’s also important to learn about who you are doing business as the question of source can determine whether or not something is legal.

2. What do the lab tests say?

If your first thought in reading this is, “should I be testing CBD products?” the answer is “yes!” It’s important to test for items that could pose a risk to public health including pesticides, heavy metals, and microbials. States may require such testing, but the risk will ultimately fall on any company in the line of production. If a consumer is harmed, the cultivator, processor, and distributor may all be sued for product liability.

CBD is not independently listed as a controlled substance in the CSA. However, THC is. This means you need to test to make sure you CBD product does not contain THC, unless you are selling it in states that have legal marijuana programs. This is important whether your are dealing with Farm Bill hemp as it is defined as containing less than .3% THC on a dry weight basis, or if you are dealing with exempt plant material as THC alone is a Schedule I controlled substance.

3. Where is the CBD going to be sold?

I recently wrote about how state law impacts the distribution of hemp-derived CBD products. If you are distributing products in a state that restricts the sale of CBD, like Michigan, you products could be seized and your company and its stakeholders could face criminal sanctions. It’s important to track where your products are being distributed and to inform your potential customers that they too must monitor state law.

4. What claims are you making about CBD?

We’ve written before that the FDA will treat products as drugs if their own labeling or marketing suggests they are “intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease.” Phrases like “combats tumor cells” and “[has] anti-proliferative properties that inhibit cell division and growth in certain types of cancer” clearly suggest that the CDB product can cure, mitigate, treat or prevent cancer, and is thus a drug.

Any suggestion that a product might have a role in treating or diagnosing disease, or that it is intended to affect the structure or any function of the human body of humans or other animals, is a health claim that subjects the product to drug regulations (unless it falls within the narrow confines of the Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act, which the FDA has ruled that CBD does not.)

It’s important to remember that only the FDA can determine whether a drug can be labelled as safe and effective for a particular disease. Preventing health claims based on anecdotal evidence is one of the FDA’s core functions and the agency will not hesitate to issue warning letters based on CBD health claims.

Long story short, don’t make health claims about your CBD products or allow others to post testimonials on your website.

5. Has the law changed?

Finally, it’s important to keep up with the ever changing legal landscape. Tom Angell of Marijuana Moment recently reported that Mitch McConnell announced that his proposed hemp bill will be included in the broad ranging agricultural act of 2018. This comes shortly after Congress approved a non-binding resolution acknowledging the vast potential of hemp.

In addition to federal law, stakeholders need to stay informed as to how the DEA feels about CBD that week. The DEA is often changing its policy on this subject, whether that comes through a post on its website or an internal directive. It’s important to stay up-to-date on the DEA’s latest position on CBD.

Finally, monitor state law. This is probably the hardest to accomplish since there are 50 states who each may treat CBD differently. Still, if you are doing business in a state, it’s on you to know the rules.

CBD law is incredibly complex and this list only scratches the surface as to what you need to look out for. If you have additional questions, give our firm a call to see how we can help your CBD business thrive.

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Industrial Hemp: Don’t Forget About State Law!

industrial hemp CBD legal

As CBD and hemp continue to grow in popularity we are receiving an increasing number of calls and emails from companies that want to distribute hemp across the country. We have written about the legality of hemp and CBD under federal law:

This post focuses on another topic: state law on CBD and Industrial Hemp.

The 2014 Farm Bill grants states the authority to regulate Industrial Hemp, which contains less than .3% THC on a dry weight basis, through an Agricultural Pilot Program. The Farm Bill also requires that Industrial Hemp is overseen by a state’s department of agriculture. The Farm Bill is light on additional details and states have taken different approaches to regulating Industrial Hemp and CBD derived from Industrial Hemp.

Colorado cemented its place in history as a cannabis pioneer by legalizing marijuana in 2012 along with Washington. Colorado’s hemp credentials are also solid as it has dedicated more acreage to the cultivation of hemp than any other state. Cultivators are permitted to sell hemp to the public. Colorado does not oversee the processing of hemp though which makes the extraction process largely unregulated.

Unlike Colorado, Oregon regulates both the production and processing of Industrial Hemp. Oregon’s Department of Agriculture (ODA) oversees the state’s industrial hemp program. “Growers” must register with the ODA in order to produce Industrial Hemp and “Handlers” must register to process Industrial Hemp. Oregon differs from Colorado in that it does not permit its Growers to sell Industrial Hemp directly to the public. Conversely, Handlers are permitted to sell Industrial Hemp to any person. Growers and Handlers may also sell their products to licensed recreational marijuana businesses giving them access the state’s recreational marijuana market. Growers and Handlers can apply to the Oregon Liquor Control Commission (OLCC) for an Industrial Hemp certificate to transfer hemp to recreational processors. OLCC retailers can then turn around and sell these hemp-based products to Oregon consumers.

Washington recently passed a law that sets up a similar structure. You can read about this law here, as we covered it a few months ago when it was still a proposed bill. Washington’s licensed processors will soon be allowed to use additives derived from hemp-based products that were grown outside of its licensed marijuana system. These additives may come from Washington’s own Industrial Hemp program, which has been stalled for the last few years due to budget issues, or from Industrial Hemp sourced from other sources.

California has followed a similar path to Washington in that its hemp program has failed to launch in a meaningful way. Part of the hold up has been that California requires that Industrial Hemp only be grown by those on the list of approved hemp seed cultivars. That list includes only hemp seed cultivars certified on or before January 1, 2013. Industrial hemp may only be grown as a densely planted fiber or oilseed crop, or both, in minimum acreages. Growers of industrial hemp and seed breeders must register with the county agricultural commissioner and pay a registration and/or renewal fee. We wrote about proposed changes to California’s program here.

Michigan‘s office of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA) recently issued an Advisory Bulletin that only permits the sale of CBD in licensed medical marijuana dispensaries. The Bulletin first states that CBD cannot be found in portions of the cannabis plant that fall outside the state’s definition of “marihuana” (i.e., the mature stalks, seeds incapable of germination, fiber from stalks, oil or cake made from seeds or other derivatives of the mature stalks) other than in trace amounts. The Bulletin goes onto state that Michigan’s Industrial Hemp program does not authorize the “sale or transfer” of Industrial Hemp.

This is significant as it means that CBD derived from Industrial Hemp cannot be sold and that CBD derived from marijuana can only be sold in dispensaries. The Bulletin also seems to include Industrial Hemp from other states as it concludes with the following:

Any possession or transfer of industrial hemp – or any product claimed to be “hemp”-related – must be done in compliance with Michigan’s Industrial Hemp Research Act.

The bottom line in Michigan is that to sell CBD in that state, whether from marijuana or hemp, you need to go through a dispensary.

Also keep in mind that some states do not regulate Industrial Hemp at all. This should not be interpreted to mean that they will turn a blind eye to hemp products distributed within their borders. Other states, regulate CBD specifically, which can be found in Industrial Hemp, and those states limit the use of CBD to patients who have received an authorization from a physician for its medical use.

If you want to distribute Industrial Hemp across the country it is not as simple as making sure that you have a licensed cultivator. Sure, you need to know the laws of the state in which you are sourcing hemp, but that’s not enough. You need to also consider the legal landscape of the places you intend to ship and sell Industrial Hemp products.

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Depression and Cannabis

Depressed? Could cannabis help?

THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM AND MOOD

Our moods are affected by our environment, life situations, genetics, and brain activity. Some individuals are simply happier than others, and research on CB1 (cannabinoid) receptor genes gives us some clues to why that happens. [1] However, even though some are seemingy genetically destined to find and maintain happiness easier, other variables in life cannot be minimized.

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DEA Confirms It Cannot Regulate All Parts of the Cannabis Plant

On May 22, the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (“DEA”) issued an internal directive (the “Directive”) acknowledging the Agency’s jurisdiction over cannabis has its limits. The directive is in line with a plain reading of the federal Controlled Substance Act (“CSA”), which authorizes the DEA’s enforcement power, but does not regulate the whole cannabis plant.

To conceptualize this, think of the CSA distinguishing the cannabis plant into two parts. The first is “Marihuana” which is “all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin.” The second classification under the CSA is “Exempt Cannabis Plant Material.” As per the CSA definition, we can break Exempt Cannabis Plant Material into four categories:

  1. Mature stalks
  2. Fiber produced from mature stalks
  3. Oil or cake made from seeds
  4. Seeds incapable of germination

Exempt Cannabis Plant Material also includes “any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation” of the items listed above. However, there is an exception to the exemption as resin derived from mature stalks is considered Marijuana, not Exempt Plant Material. If you are feeling confused at this point, don’t worry: This stuff is not for the faint of heart.

And that is where the Directive comes in. The Directive states that it was issued in order to clarify the ruling in Hemp Industries Ass’n v. DEA, 357 F.3d 1012 (9th Cir. 2004). In this 2004 decision the Court prevented the DEA from enforcing 21 C.F.R. § 1308.11(d)(31), which independently lists THC as a Schedule I substance, with respect to Exempt Plant Material. The Directive also acknowledges that the DEA does not enforce 21 C.F.R. § 1308.35, which was the agency’s attempt to regulate Exempt Plant Material when it was contained in products intended for human consumption. Kyle Jaeger of Marijuana Moment reported that the Directive’s concession was part of a settlement with the Hemp Industries Association (“HIA”).

So why would the DEA is issue a directive based on a case that was 14 years ago? It probably has to do with the HIA’s more recent lawsuit against the DEA over its Marijuana Extract Rule. In that case, the Ninth Circuit declined to review the Marijuana Extract Rule on largely procedural grounds. For those keeping score, HIA has sued the DEA three times, with two wins and a qualified loss.

The “Marijuana Extract Rule” broadly defines a “marijuana extract” as:

“[A]n extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant.”

Under the plain text, the “hook” for this rule is the presence of any cannabinoid from any part of the cannabis plant. Full stop. It makes no distinction between Exempt Plant Material and Marijuana. This seems to go far beyond the scope of the CSA. However, this directive concedes that the DEA’s power is limited to Marijuana and not Exempt Plant Plant Material:

“Products and materials that are made from the cannabis plant and which fall outside the CSA definition of marijuana (such as sterilized seeds, oil or cake made from the seeds, and mature stalks) are not controlled under the CSA.”

The Directive goes a step further by acknowleding that Exempt Plant Material is outside of the DEA’s jurisdiction despite the presence of a cannabinoid:

“Such products may accordingly be sold and otherwise distributed throughout the United States without restriction under the CSA or its implementing regulations. The mere presence of cannabinoids is not itself dispositive as to whether a substance is within the scope of the CSA; the dispositive question is whether the substance falls within the CSA definition of marijuana.”

The Directive goes on to clarify that Exempt Plant Materials are also legal to import and export in compliance with the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act.

The Directive does not explicitly address Industrial Hemp as defined in 7606 of the 2014 US Farm Bill (the “Farm Bill”). The Farm Bill allows states to grow “Industrial Hemp” defined as having less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis in states that have implement agricultural pilot hemp programs. In the Court’s recent decision to deny reviewing the Marijuana Extract Rule, it threw HIA a pretty nice bone:

“[The Farm Bill] contemplates potential conflict between the Controlled Substances Act and preempts it. The Final Rule therefore, does not violate the [Farm Bill].”

Premption means that the Farm Bill overides the CSA, when the two conflict. The DEA cannot use its enforcement authority under the CSA to enforce the Marijuana Extract Rule with regards to extracts derived from bona fide Industrial Hemp. Specifically, the Industrial Hemp must be grown pursuant to a state’s industrial hemp program and contain less than .3% THC. Also, the DEA has stated that the Farm Bill does not permit the commercial sale of Industrial Hemp or its interstate transfer, although Congress has limited DEA’s ability to use federal funds to prohibit the sale or interstate transfer of Industrial Hemp until September 2018.

So where does that leave us with regards to cannabidiol (“CBD”)? The Marijuana Extract Rule is valid. Obviously, it would cover any product containing CBD if that product were derived from Marijuana. However, based on the Directive and the Ninth Circuit’s decisions, extracts containing CBD derived from Exempt Plant Material or Industrial Hemp would not be within the Marijuana Extract Rule.

There is significant scientific research showing that meaningful levels of CBD cannot be extracted from Exempt Plant Material. The Farm Bill provides protection to all parts of the cannabis plant if the plant is Industrial Hemp, including the flowering tops. CBD could be extracted from Industrial Hemp without necessarily falling under the DEA’s jurisdiction. And can it be sold interstate? Well, given what Congress has done, at least until September.

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Coffee and Cannabis

Coffee and cannabis are two of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the world. Whereas cannabis is often consumed to relax the body, enhance perception, and stimulate creativity, coffee – like tea and other caffeinated beverages – is typically used to energize and help people focus, particularly in the face of exhaustion.

Does it make sense to consume cannabis and coffee together? How do they interact? Is it fitting that decriminalized THC-rich cannabis was first sold over-the-counter in Amsterdam’s coffee shops?

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